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Ja wygląda badanie ortoptyczne?


Dlaczego należy przeprowadzać badania ortoptyczne? ortoptyczne przeprowadza się celem  określenia pracy mięśni ocznych, stanu widzenia obuocznego oraz odbioru bodźców wzrokowych. 

Ortopozycja czyli ustawienie oczu "na wprost", równowaga mięśni gałkoruchowych są niezwykle ważne dla zapewnienia prawidłowej korespondencji siatkówkowej.   Ta z kolei jest podstawą  do uzyskania poszczególnych stopni widzenia obuocznego. Ruchy gałek ocznych powinny być skojarzone we wszystkich kierunkach. Zaburzenia tego mechanizmu oraz brak korekcji wady refrakcji, bardzo często przyczyniają się   do  powstanie zeza, który może w konsekwencji spowodować niedowidzenie.

Należy podkreślić, że badania i terapia ortoptyczna odgrywają ważną rolę także u pacjentów o prawidłowej ostrości wzroku, posiadających widzenie obuoczne. Dzieje się tak  ponieważ osoby te (dzieci, dorośli), mogą cierpieć na  pozornie niewidoczne zaburzenia, np. takie jak: zez ukryty, osłabienie akomodacji, słaby zakres widzenia obuocznego. Nieprawidłowości te mogą przyczyniać się  do szybkiego zmęczenia oczu, bólu głowy, trudności z czytaniem, pisaniem etc. Zaniedbane mogą przekształcić się w poważniejszych trudności.  Z powyższych względów wykonywanie badań ortoptycznych jest bardzo wskazane. 

 Badanie ortoptyczne może być wykonane bez skierowania, nie ma ku niemu żadnych przeciwwskazań.  Oprócz małych dzieci, nie wymaga ono szczególnego przygotowania. Badania i rehabilitacja ortoptyczna prowadzone są przez ortoptystów, we ścisłej współpracy z lekarzem okulistą / strabologiem.  

Wizyta w gabinecie ortoptycznym 

Powinna się  rozpocząć od przeprowadzenia wywiadu  z pacjentem lub jego opiekunem. Ortoptysta może zapytać np. o ogólny stan zdrowia, występowanie chorób oczu w rodzinie, dotychczasowe leczenie.  Wskazane jest, aby  pacjent  miał przy sobie wyniki wcześniej przeprowadzonych badań, odpis recepty okularowej itp. To z pewnością ułatwi postawienie diagnozy i wdrożenie odpowiedzniego leczenia.

Podstawowe badania, które wykonywane są w gabinecie ortoptycznym to: - badanie ostrości wzroku do dali i bliży - badanie ruchomości gałek ocznych - test zasłaniania oczu - badanie kąta zeza - badanie widzenia obuocznego - badanie widzenia stereoskopowego - badanie fiksacji - badanie konwergencji oraz akomodacji.

Wyniki badania ortoptycznego powinny zostać uzupełnione badaniem okulistycznym, a w szczególniości  badaniem refrakcji, u dzieci koniecznie po porażaniu akomodacji kroplami, zapisaniem (jeśli konieczne) właściwej korekcji wady wzroku  oraz badaniem przedniego i tylnego odcinka gałki ocznej (bardzo ważne jest badanie dna oka!).

Opracowanie: mgr Ewa Witowska

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